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Deano

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  1. 1. Small Snake Population There are very few snakes on the island of Jamaica. The mongoose was imported to Jamaica to rid the cane fields of rats in 1872. As an added benefit, the mongoose has killed off almost the entire population of snakes. So running across a snake is a rare occurrence in Jamaica but when you and if you do, they look something like this. 2. Foreign Crops The original inhabitants of Jamaica, the Arawak, grew corn and yams. Today, the major crops of Jamaica include sugar cane, bananas, and mangoes. None of these crops are native to the island; they were imported to the island at varying times in the island’s history. Coconut Palms, breadfruit, and bamboo were also imported to the island. 3. Bond, James Bond British writer, Ian Fleming is famous for his 007 James Bond character. After designing his dream home, Ian Fleming choose to have it built in Jamaica and name it Goldeneye. In Jamaica, he wrote ten of his world renowned James Bond spy thrillers. 4. Olympic Winners In 1988, Jamaica became the first tropical country to enter a Winter Olympic event. It was the bobsled event. The movie, Cool Runnings, tells the story of the Jamaica’s first foray in to the Winter Olympics. Only the United States has won more Olympic and World medals than Jamaica. 5. Flags of the World Jamaica is one of only two countries in the world that has no colors in common with the flag of the United States of America. The other country is Mauritania (green and yellow). Libya used to have a solid green flag but has since changed it to include red and white. The Jamaican flag is green, yellow, and black. Two yellow stripes intersect in an X with green filling in the top and bottom and black on either side. 6. Innovative Jamaica Jamaica was the first country in the Western world to build a railroad. They built their railroad a mere 18 years after Britain built theirs. AT&T copied Jamaica’s telephone system because it was so well developed. In 1994, Jamaica became the first Caribbean nation to launch its own website. 7. Blue Mountains and Moons The stunning Blue Mountains in Jamaica are named for the mist that covers them. From a distance, the mist appears blue. A second moon in a month is called a blue moon; however, there have been half a dozen sittings of sapphire colored moons in the past 40 years. 8. Orchids Everywhere Over 200 species of Orchids grow wild on the island of Jamaica. 73 of the species are unique to Jamaica. There are a 1,000 species of trees and 500 species of ferns. Jamaica is the best place to see wild flora and fauna.
  2. Efforts are underway for the establishment of a library and museum to honour reggae great Dennis Brown. The foundation set up to preserve the work and legacy of the singer, popularly referred to as the Crown Prince of Reggae, has commenced. Brown's contemporary and close friend, Freddie McGregor, shared the update with a massive audience gathered on the Kingston waterfront on Sunday for the annual tribute concert dedicated to Brown. Speaking to the Jamaica Observer following his performance, McGregor noted that the foundation's efforts were previously concentrated on the concert. Now that the event is on its feet, the next project is a library and museum. Click Here to Read More.
  3. Mia Dailey, the one-year-old who was shot by gunmen as they slaughtered a man at West Street in downtown Kingston Sunday morning, is responding after surgery, a relative told the Jamaica Observer yesterday. “She’s responding, but there is no feeling in her legs,” the relative said. “The X-ray suggests that there is some injury to her spine, so they are doing further tests to determine the extent of the damage, and they’ve brought in a specialist to consult on the matter.” Mia, who had been seated on a chair outside her house awaiting her bottle, was shot in her abdomen and spine when gunmen attacked and murdered 43-year-old Andon Robinson, shortly after 7:00 am. Click Here To Read More.
  4. Hail Massive, We are happy to announce a new feature on the forum called Members Award This system provides administrators the ability to award their members with badges that show in their profile and, if chosen, on their posts. Members can also earn awards and rewards based on; Content Count Profile Completeness Profile View Count Reputation Level starting a Topic in a Specific Forum More on what awards and rewards will follow. Stay tuned for more.
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    Published in 1924, Jamaica Anansi Stories includes folklore (including animal stories, modern stories and old stories), transcriptions of folk music, and a large collection of riddles, all cross-referenced with folklore studies from other cultures. The trickster Anansi, originally a West African spider-god, lives on in these tales. Anansi is the spirit of rebellion; he is able to overturn the social order; he can marry the Kings' daughter, create wealth out of thin air; baffle the Devil and cheat Death. Even if Anansi loses in one story, you know that he will overcome in the next.
  6. But even if all doesn't fail, the child best interest should still be a priority. However, what about when that child grows up and leave home?
  7. Most definitely wife. As @lilmisskim said, mothers are important but when you are married, your wife becomes your immediate family which becomes your priority.
  8. Jamaican Flag The Jamaican flag was unfurled and hoisted for the first time at the dramatic hour of midnight on August 5, 1962 as the British flag was being lowered, signalling the dawn of Jamaica’s political independence from Britain, present day United Kingdom, after over 300 years under British rule. Coat of Arms The Jamaican national motto is ‘Out of Many One People’, based on the population’s multiracial roots. The motto is represented on the Coat of Arms, showing a male and female member of the Taino tribe standing on either side of a shield which bears a red cross with five golden pineapples. Ackee “Carry me ackee go a Linstead Market, not a quattie wut sell” is a line in the popular Jamaican folk song ‘Linstead Market’. Ackee (Blighia sapida) is the national fruit of Jamaica as well as a component of the dish – ackee and codfish. Although the ackee is not indigenous to Jamaica, it has remarkable historic associations. Originally, it was imported to the island from West Africa, probably on a slave ship. Now it grows here luxuriantly, producing large quantities of edible fruit each year. The ackee tree grows up to 15.24m (50ft) under favourable conditions. It bears large red and yellow fruit 7.5 – 10 cm (3-4 in.) long. When ripe these fruits burst into sections revealing shiny black round seeds on top of a yellow aril which is partially edible. The Doctor Bird The doctor bird or swallow tail humming bird (Trochilus Polytmus), is one of the most outstanding of the 320 species of hummingbirds. It lives only in Jamaica. These birds’ beautiful feathers have no counterpart in the entire bird population and they produce iridescent colours characterstic only of that family. In addition to these beautiful feathers, the mature male has two long tails which stream behind him when he flies. For years the doctor bird has been immortalized in Jamaican folklore and song Lignum Vitae The Lignum Vitae (Guiacum Officinale) was found here by Christopher Columbus. The short, compact tree is native to continental tropical American and the West Indies. In Jamaica, it grows best in the dry woodland along the north and south coasts of the island. The plant is extremely ornamental, producing an attractive blue flower and orange-yellow fruit, while its crown has an attractive rounded shape. The tree is one of the most useful in the world. The Blue Mahoe The Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus Elatus) is the national tree of Jamaica. It is indigenous to the island and grows quite rapidly, often attaining 20m (66ft) or more in height. In wetter districts it will grow in a wide range of elevations, up to 1200m (4000 ft.) and is often used in reforestation. The tree is quite attractive with its straight trunk, broad green leaves and hibiscus-like flowers. The attractive flower changes colour as it matures, going from bright yellow to orange red and finally to crimson.
  9. Nanny of the Maroons Nanny was a leader of the Maroons at the beginning of the 18th century. She was known by both the Maroons and the British settlers as an outstanding military leader who became, in her lifetime and after, a symbol of unity and strength for her people during times of crisis. She was particularly important to them in the fierce fight with the British, during the First Maroon War from 1720 to 1739. Although she has been immortalised in songs and legends, certain facts about Nanny (or “Granny Nanny”, as she was affectionately known) have also been documented. Samuel Sharpe Samuel Sharpe was the main instigator of the 1831 Slave Rebellion, which began on the Kensington Estate in St. James and which was largely instrumental in bringing about the abolition of slavery. Because of his intelligence and leadership qualities, Sam Sharpe became a “daddy”, or leader of the native Baptists in Montego Bay. Religious meetings were the only permissible forms of organised activities for the slaves. Sam Sharpe was able to communicate his concern and encourage political thought, concerning events in England which affected the slaves and Jamaica. Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jamaica’s first National Hero was born in St. Ann’s Bay, St. Ann, on August 17, 1887. He was conferred with the Order of the National Hero in 1969 as per the second schedule of the National Honours and Awards Act. In his youth Garvey migrated to Kingston, where he worked as a printer and later published a small paper “The Watchman”. During his career Garvey travelled extensively throughout many countries, observing the poor working and living conditions of black people. In 1914 he started the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), in Jamaica. The UNIA, which grew into an international organisation, encouraged self-government for black people worldwide; self-help economic projects and protest against racial discrimination. George William Gordon Born to a slave mother and a planter father who was attorney to several sugar estates in Jamaica, George William Gordon was self-educated and a landowner in the parish of St. Thomas.In the face of attempts to crush the spirit of the freed people of Jamaica and again reduce them to slavery, Gordon entered politics. He faced severe odds, as the people whose interests he sought to serve did not qualify to vote.He subdivided his own lands, selling farm lots to the people as cheaply as possible, and organised a marketing system, through which they could sell their produce at fair prices. Gordon urged the people to protest against and resist the oppressive and unjust conditions under which they were forced to live. Paul Bogle Paul Bogle, it is believed, was born free about 1822. He was a Baptist deacon in Stony Gut, a few miles north of Morant Bay, and was eligible to vote at a time when there were only 104 voters in the parish of St. Thomas. He was a firm political supporter of George William Gordon. Poverty and injustice in the society and lack of public confidence in the central authority, urged Bogle to lead a protest march to the Morant Bay courthouse on October 11, 1865. In a violent confrontation with full official forces that followed the march, nearly 500 people were killed and a greater number was flogged and punished before order was restored. Norman Washington Manley Norman Washington Manley was born at Roxborough, Manchester, on July 4, 1893. He was a brilliant scholar and athlete, soldier (First World War) and lawyer. He identified himself with the cause of the workers at the time of the labour troubles of 1938 and donated time and advocacy to the cause. In September 1938, Manley founded the People’s National Party (PNP) and was elected its President annually until his retirement in 1969, 31 years later. Manley and the PNP supported the trade union movement, then led by Alexander Bustamante, while leading the demand for Universal Adult Suffrage. When Suffrage came, Manley had to wait ten years and two terms before his party was elected to office. Sir Alexander Bustamante When Sir Alexander Bustamante began to make his presence felt in Jamaica, the country was still a Crown Colony. Under this system, the Governor had the right to veto at all times, which he very often exercised against the wishes of the majority. Bustamante was quick to realise that the social and economic ills that such a system engendered, had to be countered by mobilisation of the working class. Pay and working conditions were poor in the 1920s and 1930s. Failing harvests and the lay-off of workers resulted in an influx of unemployed people, moving from the rural areas into the city. This mass migration did little to alleviate the already tremendous unemployment problem.
  10. Deano

    Emancipation

    When full Emancipation came in 1838 a system that had been tried and tested in the Caribbean since the sixteenth century came to an end. Slavery had within itself the seeds of its own destruction, whether because slaves resisted it (alternating with accommodation), or whether the emergence of a new style capitalism rendered slavery obsolete or incompatible with British industrial society, or whether the merging of philanthropy with evangelical religion helped to frame an ideology that was antagonistic to slavery. Yet, whatever the “international dimensions” of Emancipation, the reality was that within the Caribbean the planter class remained opposed to Emancipation, and only the reward of £20,000,000 in compensation for their lost “property” made surrender to the Colonial Office more palatable to them. So, too, did planter recognition that they were to prove victorious in one very important respect-the slave was legally free, but the structure of slave society remained unchanged. The energy of planters was now to be directed towards converting a former slave labour force into a permanent plantation labour force. From the perspective of planters, it was to be the same rider, on the same mule, cantering towards the same destiny. As I have noted elsewhere, “The social system rested during and after slavery on the assumption that superiority or inferiority of social position were physically or philosophically congruent with superiority or inferiority of race.” The recognition in 1834 by the ex-slaves/apprentices that abolition had not been intended to create a context of freedom that would provide opportunities to develop “a wide range of own account activities … independent of the control of the former slave masters” (as Tony Bogues puts it) was met with strikes, and in St. Kitts with a riot and certainly with a reluctance to place any freedom value on August 1, 1834. The point emerges in the oral historical account of Kenneth Bryan – the skepticism of the ex-slave who saw August 1, 1834, as a hoax, that they feared would be repeated in 1838. For the ex-slave 1838, not 1834, was the year of decision: “when 1838 came and they were free they were reluctant in accepting freedom, because they believed it was another rumour like what took place in 1834.” And while 1838 was to be “full free”, the experience of the future generations of black labourers was to be what Burchell Whiteman has noted “a long twilight of unfulfilled hopes.” Whiteman sees Emancipation, of necessity therefore, as a process and not just a calendar event; Bogues concludes, too, that the deepest aspirations and strivings of the black majority have been frustrated by the hegemonic ideology of creole nationalism, notwithstanding an occasional vibrant black nationalism. The planters had an interest to protect, the ex slaves an interest to advance. The former had the weight of the British Government behind them, the latter nothing but their ambition, labour and their power to withdraw it. The latter’s power was never sufficient to enable them to fight successfully against arbitrary taxation, anti-squatting legislation, high rentals for prime land, unavailability of land, and low wages which remained static for close on one hundred years after Emancipation. As Bogues notes, “the content and interpretation of freedom means different things, given time, space and content.” While Whiteman emphasises the long-term constraints on the ability of the new generations of ex-slaves and their children, Bogues places the issue squarely in terms of an evolving elite ideology which, whether we call it the pro-slavery ideology as Gordon Lewis does, or “creole nationalism” that Bogues calls it, has had the same effect, the long-term defeat of the principle of freedom as defined by the ex-slaves and their descendants. Racism, partly concealed by the legal system of slavery itself, became a major force in social control, and along with that a pointed display of arrogance towards most manifestations of non-European culture. Thus, Emancipation, carried out from above to preempt a more devastating upheaval from below, reflected the planter class’s narrow, conservative, interpretation of Emancipation as legal freedom. “For the whites of Jamaica and elsewhere where slavery had been abolished, the challenge of Emancipation consisted in organising production around free labour, while keeping alive the spirit of inequality that had marked the plantation system.” Continue reading here..... Jamaica Information Service (JIS)
  11. History of Jamaica The history of Jamaica is a rich and vibrant one, which inspires us to move forward as a nation. Our history speaks to experiences of hardships and prosperity; and the growth and determination of a people. Jamaica’s history has been poetically composed by Howard Pyle, who states: Jamaica, like many another of the West Indian Islands, is like a woman with a history. She has had her experiences and has lived her life rapidly. She has enjoyed a fever of prosperity founded upon those incalculable treasures poured into her lap by the old time buccaneer pirates. She has suffered earthquake, famine, pestilence, fire and death: and she has been the home of cruel merciless slavery, hardly second to that practised by the Spaniards themselves. Other countries have taken centuries to grow from their primitive life through the flower and fruit of prosperity into the seed time of picturesque decrepitude. Jamaica has lived through it all in a few years. Original Inhabitants The original inhabitants of Jamaica are believed to be the Arawaks, also called Tainos. They came from South America 2,500 years ago and named the island Xaymaca, which meant ““land of wood and water”. The Arawaks were a mild and simple people by nature. Physically, they were light brown in colour, short and well-shaped with coarse, black hair. Their faces were broad and their noses flat. They grew cassava, sweet potatoes, maize (corn), fruits, vegetables, cotton and tobacco. Tobacco was grown on a large scale as smoking was their most popular pastime. They built their villages all over the island but most of them settled on the coasts and near rivers as they fished to get food. Fish was also a major part of their diet. The Arawaks led quiet and peaceful lives until they were destroyed by the Spaniards some years after Christopher Columbus discovered the island in 1494. The Discovery of Jamaica On May 5, 1494 Christopher Columbus, the European explorer, who sailed west to get to the East Indies and came upon the region now called the West Indies, landed in Jamaica. This occurred on his second voyage to the West Indies. Columbus had heard about Jamaica, then called Xaymaca, from the Cubans who described it as “the land of blessed gold”. Columbus was soon to find out that there was no gold in Jamaica. On arrival at St Ann’s Bay, Columbus found the Arawak Indians inhabiting the island. Initially, Columbus thought these Indians were hostile, as they attacked his men when they tried to land on the island. As he was determined to annex the island in the name of the king and queen of Spain, he was not deterred. Columbus also needed wood and water and a chance to repair his vessels. He sailed down the coast and docked at Discovery Bay. The Arawaks there were also hostile to the Spaniards. Their attitudes changed however, when they were attacked by a dog from one of the Spanish ships and Columbus’ cross-bow men. Some of the Arawaks were killed and wounded in this attack. Columbus was then able to land and claim the island. The Spaniards, when they came, tortured and killed the Arawaks to get their land. They were so overworked and ill-treated that within a short time they had all died. The process was aided by the introduction of European diseases to which the Arawaks had little or no resistance. The island remained poor under Spanish rule as few Spaniards settled here. Jamaica served mainly as a supply base: food, men, arms and horse were shipped here to help in conquering the American mainland. Fifteen years later in 1509, after their first visit to the island, the first Spanish colonists came here under the Spanish governor Juan de Esquivel. They first settled in the St. Ann’s Bay area. The first town was called New Seville or Sevilla la Nueva. Towns were little more than settlements. The only town that was developed was Spanish Town, the old capital of Jamaica, then called St. Jago de la Vega. It was the centre of government and trade and had many churches and convents. The little attention the colony received from Spain soon led to a major reason for internal strife. This contributed to the weakening of the colony in the last years of Spanish occupation. The governors were not getting proper support from home and quarrels with church authorities undermined their control. Frequent attacks by pirates also contributed to the colony’s woes. The English Attack On May 10, 1655, Admiral William Penn and General Robert Venables led a successful attack on Jamaica. The Spaniards surrendered to the English, freed their slaves and then fled to Cuba. It was this set of freed slaves and their descendants who became known as the Maroons. The early period of English settlement in Jamaica, drew much attention to the buccaneers based at Port Royal. Buccaneering had begun on the islands of Tortuga and Hispaniola. They were a wild, rough and ruthless set of sea rovers. They took their loot of gold, silver and jewels to Port Royal. Port Royal prior to this time was an insignificant town in Jamaica. Under the buccaneers’ leadership the town, within a decade and a half, grew to become known as one of the “wealthiest and wickedest city in the world”. The greatest buccaneer captain of all was Henry Morgan. He started out as a pirate and later became a privateer. Morgan mercilessly raided Spanish fleet and colonies. He kept the Spaniards busy defending their coasts that they had little time to attack Jamaica. Morgan was knighted by king Charles II of England and was appointed Lieutenant governor of Jamaica in 1673. Morgan died in 1688. A violent earthquake destroyed Port Royal on June 7, 1692. The survivors of the earthquake who re-settled in Kingston abandoned the Port. Port Royal became an important naval base in the eighteenth century. The Slave Trade The English settlers concerned themselves with growing crops that could easily be sold in England. Tobacco, indigo and cocoa soon gave way to sugar which became the main crop for the island. The sugar industry grew so rapidly that the 57 sugar estates in the island in 1673 grew to nearly 430 by 1739. Enslaved Africans filled the large labour force required for the industry. The colonists were impressed with the performance and endurance of the Africans, as well as the fact that African labour was cheaper and more promising. They continued to ship Africans to the West Indies to be sold to planters who forced them to work on sugar plantations. The slave trade became a popular and profitable venture for the colonists. In fact the transportation of slaves became such a regular affair that the journey from Africa to the West Indies became known as the ‘Middle Passage’. The voyage was so named because the journey of a British slaver was 3-sided, starting from England with trade goods, to Africa where these were exchanged for slaves. Afterwards, the journey continued to the West Indies where the slaves were landed and sugar, rum and molasses taken aboard for the final leg of the journey back to England. The slaves, however, were unhappy with their status, so they rebelled whenever they could. Many of them were successful in running away from the plantations and joining the Maroons in the almost inaccessible mountains. Several slave rebellions stand out in Jamaica’s history for example, the Easter Rebellion of 1760 led by Tacky; and the Christmas Rebellion of 1831 which began on the Kensington Estate in St. James, led by Sam Sharpe. He has since been named a National Hero. The Maroons also had several wars against the English. In 1739 and 1740 after two major Maroon Wars, treaties were signed with the British. In the treaty of 1740, they were given land and rights as free men. In return they were to stop fighting and help to recapture run-away slaves. This treaty resulted in a rift among the Maroons as they did not all agree that they should return run-away slaves to the plantations. The frequent slave rebellions in the Caribbean was one factor that led to the abolition of the slave trade and slavery. Other factors included the work of humanitarians who were concerned about the slaves’ well-being. Humanitarian groups such as the Quakers publicly protested against slavery and the slave trade. They formed an anti slavery committee which was joined by supporters such as Granville Sharp, James Ramsay, Thomas Clarkson and later on, William Wilberforce. On January 1, 1808 the Abolition Bill was passed. Trading in African slaves was declared to be “utterly abolished, prohibited and declared to be unlawful”. Emancipation and apprenticeship came into effect in 1834 and full freedom was granted in 1838. The immediate post slavery days were very difficult for the poorer classes. Though most of the English planters had left the islands and new owners were running the plantations, the old oligarchic system still remained. The will of the masses was not deemed important and hence ignored. To add fuel to the already burning flame, the American Civil War resulted in supplies being cut off from the island. A severe drought was also in progress and most crops were ruined. In October 1865, an uprising in St. Thomas, called the Morant Bay Rebellion, was led by Paul Bogle. Bogle and his men stormed the Morant Bay Courthouse while it was in session. A number of white people was killed including the custos of the parish. The rebellion was put down by the Governor, Edward John Eyre. More than 430 people were executed or shot, hundreds more flogged and 1,000 dwellings destroyed. Paul Bogle and George William Gordon, now National Heroes, were hanged. George Gordon was a prominent coloured legislator who was sympathetic to the problems of the poor people and was blamed for the trouble caused by the masses. Eyre was subsequently recalled to England but not before exchanging the ancient Constitution for the Crown Colony system. The succeeding years saw the island’s recovery and development – social, constitutional and economic, and its evolution into a sovereign state. Education, health, and social services were greatly improved. A proper island-wide savings back system was organised. Roads, bridges and railways (railways became government owned in 1845) were built and cable communication with Europe established (1859). The island’s capital was moved from Spanish Town to Kingston (1872). The 1930s saw Jamaica heading towards another crisis. The contributing factors were discontent at the slow pace of political advance. For example, the distress caused by a world-wide economic depression, the ruin of the banana industry by the Panama industry Disease, falling sugar prices, growing unemployment aggravated by the curtailment of migration opportunities and a steeply rising population growth rate. In 1938 things came to a head with widespread violence and rioting. Out of these disturbances came the formation of the first labour unions and the formation of the two major political parties. These were the Bustamante industrial Trade Union (BITU) named after the founder, Sir Alexander Bustamante. He was also the founder and leader of the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), the political party affiliated with the BITU. Norman Manley was the founder of the National Workers’ union and the political party the People’s National Party (PNP). Both Sir Alexander Bustamante and Norman Manley were instrumental in Jamaica’s move towards self-government. The first general elections under Universal Adult Suffrage was held in December 1944. In 1958, Jamaica and ten (10) other Caribbean countries formed the Federation of the West Indies. The concept of Caribbean unity was soon abandoned in 1961 when Jamaicans voted against the Federation of the West Indies. On August 6, 1962, Jamaica was granted its independence from England. Jamaica now has its own constitution which sets out the laws by which the people are governed. The constitution provides for the freedom, equality and justice for all who dwell in the country. The Jamaican Constitution The Jamaican Constitution 1962 is the most fundamental legal document in the country, guaranteeing the freedom, rights and privileges of every Jamaican citizen. The Constitution reflects the country’s independence as a nation state and, to this day, remains the cornerstone of the island’s legal systems and institutions. The Constitution took effect on August 6,1962 when Jamaica gained political independence from Britain, after more than 300 years of British colonial rule. While being the first constitution for the politically independent nation, it was not the first legal framework for the island. Download The Architects of the Jamaican Constitution Credit: Jamaica Information Service
  12. The Maroons were escaped slaves. They ran away from their Spanish-owned plantations when the British took the Caribbean island of Jamaica from Spain in 1655. The word maroon comes from the Spanish word ‘cimarrones‘, which meant ‘mountaineers’. They fled to the mountainous areas of Jamaica, where it was difficult for their owners to follow and catch them, and formed independent communities as free men and women. As more slaves were imported from Africa to work on the developing sugar plantations, and the population of enslaved Africans grew on Jamaica, there were more rebellions by the slaves. Some of the rebel slaves disappeared into the mountains and joined the Maroon communities. As the Maroon population grew, the Jamaican government decided to defeat the Maroons once and for all. They were seen as a constant threat by the government. The First Maroon War began in 1728. The campaign against them made the Maroons more determined than ever. Under their leader called Cudjoe, the Maroons fought back. In 1739, the British and the Maroons made peace. The freedom of the Maroons was recognised and their land was given to them. The Maroons were to govern themselves. In return they would support the British government in Jamaica against foreign invasion and would help capture rebel slaves and runaways from the plantations and return them to their owners. Although this agreement might seem strange now, it was one way for the Maroons to live in peace with the island’s government. Pictured here is a drawing entitled Pacification with the Maroon Negroes, dated 1801. It is an imaginary view of a meeting between British soldiers and Maroons. It is not clear whether it is meant to be of the 1739 or the 1795 peace agreement. The leaders of the Maroons did meet British officers to accept a peace agreement offered to them. Credit: National Maritime Museum. There were many years of peace between the Maroons and the British in Jamaica. But, in 1795, the new Governor of Jamaica, Balcarres, decided to deal with some minor breaches of the peace treaty by a community of Maroons called the Trelawney Town Maroons. The plantation owners asked the governor not to take action. They felt that an agreement should be reached with the Maroons to maintain the peace of the town. The governor went ahead against this advice, arresting several of the leaders of Trelawney Town. This started the Second Maroon War. 300 Maroons in Trelawney Town held out against 1500 troops and 3000 local volunteer troops. After five months of fighting, the undefeated Maroons were offered an agreement for peace. When they surrendered their arms, the Governor cheated on the peace agreement offered. The Maroons were arrested and, against the agreement they had accepted, were transported off the island to Nova Scotia, on the east coast of north America, and later went to Sierra Leone, West Africa. Leonard Parkinson was one of the leaders of the Maroons, he was active in the Second Maroon War. The local authorities put a price on his head of £50, (about £2,500 today), wanted dead or alive. Parkinson, pictured below, was known as the Captain of the Maroons. Credit: www.johnhorse.com Trelawney Town was the largest of the Maroon settlements on the island of Jamaica. The image pictured below of Trelawney Town shows the British soldiers riding in to attack the town. The Maroons are surrounding them, ready to resist, and would beat them back. Maroons were known for their skilful tactics in combat, whereby they relied on their knowledge of the surrounding environment to outwit the attackers. Credit: National Maritime Museum. Some additional info from an interview with a breadrin who knows a thing or two about the history about the Maroons and how they came to be. YouTube Video Credit: I Never Knew Tv How much did you know about the "The maroons of Jamaica"? comment below.
  13. Jamaican Patois, is expressive, colourful and, to a non-Jamaican, often confusing. The Jamaican language is largely a derivative of Spanish, English and African influences on the country through its colonial history. Although the official language of Jamaica is English, many Jamaicans speak Patois in casual everyday conversation. Here are 15 Jamaican Patois phrases to know and use on your next visit to Jamaica. 1. Small up yuhself A useful expression to know when using crowded buses or taxis; Small up yuhself quite literally means to make some room. 2. Mi Soon Come This Jamaican expression means literally: I’ll be right there. However if you’re told mi soon come, don’t be fooled. Island time is much slower than the rest of the world and this expression should be interpreted as meaning anything from a few hours to a few days. 3. Weh yuh ah seh Literally translated as ‘what are you saying’, but actually meaning ‘how are you doing’. For example: Weh yuh a seh? Mi deh try call yuh means, ‘How are you doing? I’ve been trying to call you.’ 4. Inna di morrows Used when saying goodbye. The literal translation would be ‘In the tomorrows’, meaning ‘see you later’. 5. Duppy Conqueror Bob Marley sang about them in Duppy Conqueror and Ian Fleming mentions them in Live and Let Die. In a land where superstition reigns by day and duppies (spirits) haunt by night, religion is more than just saying your prayers before you go to bed in Jamaica. This expression implies a fearless person overcoming obstacles and difficulties. The literal translation is ‘ghost conqueror’. 6. Mash up This phrase means damage or destroy. For example, Mi mash up mi fone means ‘I’ve broken my phone’. This is a popular expression and even road-signs will advise drivers to mash up yuh brakes. Meaning slow down. 7. Bless Up Religion peppers all aspects of Jamaican life and wishing people a good day is often done by using the expression bless up. Blessings can also be used. 8. Wah Gwaan This is probably the most well known Jamaican greeting and was even used by US President Barack Obama during his inaugural visit to Jamaica. Wah Gwaan is a casual greeting to enquire how somebody is or what’s up. 9. Mi deh yah, yuh know Impress locals with this handy phrase which is often used in response to Wah Gwaan. The secret is in the pronunciation and the trick is to say it fast – almost as one word. While the literal translation is ‘I am here’, the implied meaning is ‘everything is ok’, or ‘I’m doing well’. 10. Lickkle more Meaning see ‘you later’ or ‘goodbye’. For example, mi see yuh likkle more den – I’ll see you later then. 11. John-crow, yuh waan flap a wing John-crow is a Jamaican bird, known commonly across North America as the turkey buzzard. The expression yuh waan flap a wing, no doubt familiar to dancehall aficionados, is a term used to ask a girl to dance. 12. Chaka-Chaka If something is chaka-chaka it means poor quality, disorganized and messy. 13. Raggamuffin This is a term used to describe a streetwise, tough guy. It’s also a type of music usually abbreviated as ragga and is a subgenre of dancehall music and reggae. 14. Kick Up Rumpus To Kick up rumpus means to have a riotous good time. It was also the title of a hit 1985 song by Colourman and Jackie Knockshot. Share your thought on which one is you favourite, which one have you used before.

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